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4.0 Earth based facilities

       The initial financial support of this project is based on
   two industries - hydroponics and robotics.  These two industries
   can be initiated in any country around the world that wishes to
   do so.  The hydroponics industry requires a number of research
   facilities whose job is to develop a detailed plan for the growing
   of each of the crops judged to be appropriate.  The building of
   these facilities can begin immediately using current hydroponic
       The android business clearly requires a few years of lead time
   to develop the androids.  Most of the hardware necessary to build
   the androids is already available - such as color TV cameras for
   eyes, microphones and speech recognition computer software for
   hearing, speech synthesizers for voice output, pressure sensitive
   materials for "skin", composits for "bones", and so on.  The only
   hard part is the brain.  This will require a significant effort in
   artificial intelligence both for image recognition and thinking.
   It will also require a greater level of intercomputer communication
   than is common today.  We are confident that prototypes could be
   produced within three years given a modest investment of say five
   million dollars.
       Space and nuclear fusion are the two industries which we plan
   to develop in the future.  Nuclear fusion will supply the power to
   run our civilization in the twenty-first century and beyond.  The
   surface of the moon contains a resource called helium-3 which will
   be used to generate power in fusion reactors.  Since it is on the
   moon, we must go there to get it. (We are aware that there are
   sources of helium-3 which are of much higher concentration, namely,
   Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Nepture, but there are many reasons
   why these sources are less attractive than the moon.  Among them
   are: (1) the very high cost of sending a large facility to Uranus,
   (2) the delay of many years while the automated facility mines and
   returns the helium-3, and (3) the fact that you have no lunar base
   when the helium-3 is returned.)
       In order to develop space we first need to find cheaper ways
   to lift payloads into space.
   4.1  The cost of payload in orbit
       So far rockets have lifted everything that has been put into
   space.  The cost of lifting payloads is of paramount concern to any
   company that wishes to make a profit in space.  Not surprisingly
   it is very difficult to get genuine numbers where the
   cost of launch vehicles is concerned.  Consider the following:
*  Table 4.1-1     Costs of various boosters
   Booster         LEO cost  GEO cost     Source
                    $/kg      $/kg
   Shuttle          14,960                [28, p.50] Newsweek
   Titan 4          11,220                 "
   Delta             7,205                 "
   Proton            1,650                 "
   Energia             660                 "
   Titan 34D/IUS              68,200      [97, p.132] OTA
   Atlas/Centaur              55,000       "
   Delta                      52,800       "
   Ariane 3                   44,000       "
   Ariane 4                   41,800       "
   Titan 34D/TOS              37,400       "
   Shuttle          39,900 *              Author (NASA data)
   Titan 4          35,133                [AW 58, p.79] GAO est.
   Long March 3      7,143 *  35,714      [AA 6, p.54]
   Titan 34D         4,333                [AA 1, p.6]
   Ariane 4          3,970 *              [97, p.131] OTA
   Shuttle-C         3,446                [AW 63, p.18-20] OTA est.
   Energia           2,727                [AA 4, p.34]
   Proton            2,381 *              Space Commerce Corp.
       Which are the real numbers? (*) In general the higher costs
   are more believable.  Art Dula of Space Commerce Corp quoted
   the Soviet Proton rocket at $50 million per flight.  That works
   out to $2,381 per kilogram of payload.  The Ariane 4 was quoted
   at $54 million per flight by the OTA in [97, p.131] which is in
   close agreement with a figure of $50 million seen elsewhere.
   This works out to $3,970 per kilogram.  The Long March 3 was
   priced at $25 million according to Ad Astra, [AA 6, p.54].
   That information combined with data obtained from the embassy
   of the People's Republic of China about their launchers yields
   a figure of $7,143 per kilogram for LEO and $35,714 per kilogram
   for GEO.  Everyone knows that NASA is not charging space shuttle
   customers the full cost for placing their payloads in orbit,
   (neither is Arianespace, they charge 2/3 of cost [97, p.131])
   but using NASA's own data it is possible to calculate how much
   the shuttle is costing the US taxpayer - and it is astronomical.
   It works out to $39,898 per kilogram in current dollars and
   more in 1990 dollars.
   4.2  Alternatives to rockets for launching payloads from earth
       Entrenched special interests have succeeded in inhibiting the
   development of cheaper alternatives to rockets.  Many other and
   cheaper alternatives exist if only they received enough funding to
   allow them to succeed.  Below we list some of these alternatives.
       In all of the following, the costs given refer only to the
   launch costs.  Costs of satellites and their development are an
   entirely different subject.  No costs are included for insurance
   or bureaucratic red tape (courtesy of the government) either.
   4.2.1  High Altitude Research Project (HARP)
       William Lowther has written a fascinating book called "Arms
   and the Man: Dr. Gerald Bull, Iraq, and the Supergun", [Ref 117],
   which tells the story of Gerald Vincent Bull and the guns he designed
   over the years. The following story is excerpted from Lowther's
       The great passion of Gerald Bull's life was to build a gun
   which would fire satellites into orbit.  His first real chance to
   work on that project came in the early 1960s when he was a professor
   at McGill University in Montreal.  The High Altitude Research Project
   (HARP) was a joint project of the Canadian government and the
   US Army.  The US Army supplied the guns to be used in the experiments.
   The largest was a 40-centimeter (16 inch) gun built for the US Navy
   in 1921.  That gun was 21 meters long and weighed 125 metric tons
   [117, p.73]. A spare 40-centimeter barrel was included and also a
   10-centimeter gun for preliminary experiments. The big gun could fire
   a 180 kg projectile at a velocity of 1800 meters per second [117,
   p.85].  The gun was set up on the south east coast of Barbados at
   Seawell Airport (13,04,28 N, 59,28,37 W) in 1962 and the project got
   under way [127, p.157].
       HARP was always in trouble.  Bull had made lots of enemies in the
   Canadian government who were trying to kill his project.  But Bull
   wasn't the only one in trouble. The US Army had problems too. There
   was a squeeze play at the Pentagon which forced the Army out of the
   satellite business.  So the Army was funding research for sub-orbital
   trajectories while the Canadian government was funding the satellite
   part - on paper anyway.  The Pentagon was really interested in the gun
   for use as a cheap anti-missle point-defense system.
       On January 21,1963 Bull's second shot reached 26 kilometers
   in altitude.  On June 18,1963 one of Bull's 170 kg shells set an
   altitude record of 92 kilometers. In spite of the horrific
   accelerations that the shells were subject to "ways had been found to
   fire delicate guages and timing devices without damage" [117, p.83].
       In 1965, Bull had a 16 meter extension attached to the gun and
   with that he was able to reach 150 kilometers in altitude. Eventually
   the Army set up another 40-centimeter gun and research facility
   at its Yuma, Arizona proving grounds to protect themselves against
   the possibility of the Canadian government pulling out of the
   project.  The night of November 18,1966, the Yuma gun fired one of
   Bull's projectiles to a height of 180 kilometers [117, p.93]. The
   Canadian government halted funding June 30,1967 after having invested
   a total of $4.3 million.  The US Army had invested somewhat more,
   but the project total was less than $10 million.  The shells cost
   $3,000 to $5,000 each.
       Gerald Bull and Charles Murphy wrote a book called "Paris Kanonen
   - the Paris Guns and Project HARP" [Ref 127] which gives copious data
   on long large artillery.  It contains many pictures of the Barbados
   installation and the guns and projectiles used.
   4.2.2  Hydrogen gas gun
       Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is working on
   a hydrogen gas gun as a possible alternative to current launch
   systems.  In an article by B.W. Henderson in Aviation Week and
   Space Technology [AW 24, p.78-9], J.W. Hunter of LLNL revealed
   some of the details of this scheme.
       The gun's major components are two large tubes: the pumping
   tube which is about 800 meters long and 3.6 meters in diameter
   and the launching tube which is about 700 meters long and 1 meter
   in diameter.  The two tubes are joined end to end by a diaphragm.
   Inside the pumping tube is a 400 ton piston which is positioned
   about 700 meters from the diaphragm.  The projectile to be fired from
   the gun rests inside the launching tube close to the diaphragm.
   In order to fire the gun, the following sequence of events
   occurs: (1) A combustable gas is pumped into the first 100 meters
   of the pumping tube behind the piston, (2) hydrogen is pumped into
   the 700 meters of the pumping tube in front of the piston, (3) the
   launching tube is evacuated beyond the projectile, (4) the
   combustable gas is ignited which causes the piston to be driven
   down the pumping tube thus compressing the hydrogen, (5) the
   compressed hydrogen gas ruptures the diaphragm which separates
   the two tubes, (6) the hydrogen then expands against the projectile
   in the launch tube causing it to accelerate along the launching
   tube, and finally, (7) just as the projectile reaches the end of
   the tube an iris opens to allow the projectile to exit the tube at
   high speed.  Additional particulars include the following.  The whole
   gun would be about 1500 meters long and would be built up the
   side of a mountain at an elevation of 6000 feet and at an angle of
   25 degrees to the surface of the earth.  The projectiles would
   weigh about 2000 kilograms each and would exit the gun at a velocity
   of 6 kilometers per second.
       Each projectile will follow a ballistic trajectory and
   therefore will not go into orbit unless an on board rocket is used
   to circularize its orbit and increase its horizontal velocity
   component.  In order to keep costs down a cheap solid propellant
   will be used (we have assumed a specific impulse of 250). Using
   the above data we have calculated that the projectiles will reach
   an altitude of about 240 kilometers with a horizontal velocity
   of about 4532 meters per second.  At that altitude an additional
   2830 meters per second of velocity are required to attain orbit
   assuming about 400 meters per second due to the earth's rotation.
   This implies a mass ratio of 3.17 between the initial mass of the
   rocket which we assume to be 1900 kg at that time and the final
   mass of 600 kg (consisting of the payload, the rocket engine and
   the rocket casing which is now empty).
       The projectile mass would be divided up as follows:
*      Solid rocket propellant    1300 kg
       Payload                     340 kg
       Rocket casing & engine      260 kg
       Nose cone & sabot           100 kg
                                  2000 kg
       The cost of $600 per kg of payload is based upon Hunter's
   estimates of 3000 projectile launches per year for 10 years.
   This would put 10,000 metric tons in orbit assuming a loss
   rate of 2%. (3000 * 10 * 340 = 10,200 MT - 2% = 10,000 MT)
   Hunter estimates a total 10 year cost breakdown as follows:
*      Research and build gun       $ 2.0 B
       30,000 projectiles           $ 3.7 B
       Operating costs for 10 yrs   $ 0.3 B
                                    $ 6.0 B
       The cost per payload kilogram would then be:
*         $ 6 B / 10,000 MT      =  $600/kg
       The incremental cost per projectile would be:
*         $ 3.7 B / 30,000       =  $123,333 per projectile
          $ 0.3 B / 30,000       =  $ 10,000 per launch
                                    $133,333 per projectile launch
       The cost per kilogram of payload would then be:
*         $133,333 / 340 kg      =  $392/kg
       There are some very serious questions about whether this
   system will work and whether it is cheap enough to compete
   against alternative launch methods (other than the space
   shuttle which is arguably the most expensive of all launch
   methods).  The claimed working pressure of the piston is
   80,000 psi.  That is a very high pressure for a pneumatic
   piston.  Imagine the technical problems of building a 400
   ton piston which is 3.6 meters in diameter with a tolerance
   of a ten thousandth of an inch.  And the same goes for the tube,
   all 700 meters of it. What about the frictional forces as the
   piston moves in the tube? Will they damage either the piston
   or the tube?
   4.2.3  Two stage hydrogen gas gun
       In order to overcome some of deficiencies of the LLNL gun,
   John Hunter et al. have proposed a two stage hydrogen gas gun
   which would give the payload two pushes instead of just one.  This
   gun could launch 2000 kilograms at 7.1 kilometers per second and
   would cost about $500 million to build [122, p.18].
       We have a program which calculates the various parameters
   of gun launched projectiles.  The following table was prepared
   with this program.  It shows the approximate cost of rocket
   assisted projectiles fired from a two stage hydrogen gas gun in terms
   of both total cost and cost per kilogram of payload.  One can see
   from the table that the cost is extremely sensitive to the specific
   impulse (Isp) of the propellant.
*  Table 4.2.3-1                Cost of gun launched projectiles
   Mass   Launch   Isp   mass   Payload   ( % )    Cost    Cost
   (kg)    angle   (s)   ratio   (kg)              1000s   per kg
   1600     30     250    2.40   574.4     35.9   $ 84.6   $ 147
                   275    2.21   635.1     39.7   $ 80.2   $ 126
                   460    1.61   934.5     58.4   $ 58.4   $  62
   1800     29     250    2.28   690.3     38.3   $ 90.7   $ 131
                   275    2.11   757.8     42.1   $ 85.8   $ 113
                   460    1.56  1086.6     60.4   $ 61.9   $  57
   2000     28     250    2.18   810.1     40.5   $ 96.6   $ 119
                   275    2.03   884.2     44.2   $ 91.2   $ 103
                   460    1.53  1241.1     62.0   $ 65.2   $  53
   2200     27     250    2.10   933.1     42.4   $102.1   $ 109
                   275    1.96  1013.5     46.1   $ 96.3   $  95
                   460    1.50  1397.5     63.5   $ 68.4   $  49
      1. Muzzle velocity of 7100 meters per second.
      2. Launch altitude is 1500 meters.
      3. Launch latitude is 5 degrees or less.
      4. Single stage booster
      5. Tanks and engines weigh 10% of the propellant
      6. Fuel cost = $20 per kilogram
      7. Tanks and engines cost = $600 per kilogram
      8. Additional launch cost of $10,000 per shot
      1. Mass of projectile in kilograms
      2. Optimal launch angle in degrees
      3. Isp - specific impulse of rocket propellant carried
      4. Mass ratio of projectile and propellant
      5. Weight of payload in kilograms
      6. Percentage of payload in projectile
      7. Cost of each shot - no amortization of gun cost
      8. Cost per kilogram of payload.
   4.2.4  The Boeing gas gun
       The Boeing Company is working on an improved version of a
   hydrogen gas gun too.  The operation of the gun is similar to the
   Livermore gun but has been improved in several ways.  First, the
   pumping cylinder will run down an incline so that the methane
   explosion behind the cylinder will not be necessary.  Second, high
   pressure will be maintained on the projectile for a longer period
   by opening the access valve before the pumping piston reaches the
   end of the pumping cyclinder.  In the Livermore design the projectile
   receives only one push and thus the gas pressure falls off
   substantially as the projectile moves down the launch cylinder. In
   the Boeing design the pumping cylinder will still be compressing the
   gas while the projectile is moving down the launch cylinder.  The
   pressure of the gas between the piston and the projectile can be
   controlled to stop the piston and launch the projectile at the same
   time.  Since there will be no explosion, that part of the pumping
   cylinder need not be nearly as strong as the corresponding portion
   of the Livermore gun.  Thus it will be cheaper.
       Boeing plans to launch a series of projectiles which contain
   primarily propellant and small boosters.  After each projectile is
   launched it will rendezvous with the others and will join together
   to assemble a multi-engined booster.  Finally the actual satellite
   will be launched and will be attached to the booster.  Under control
   from the ground, the booster will be ignited and will lift the
   satellite to GEO.
   4.2.5  Electromagnetic "coil gun"
       Sandia National Laboratories are developing an electromagnetic
   "coil gun" which could be an inexpensive alternative to current
   launch systems.  In a report published by Sandia in October 1991
   the project is described in great detail [Ref 107].
       The full scale gun would be 960 meters long and about
   0.720 meters in diameter.  It would be built on the side of a
   convenient mountain and would slope upward at an angle of about
   25 degrees.  This gun is an example of what has been referred to
   elsewhere in this book as an electromagnetic projectile launcher
   or EMPL.  Electromagnetic fields which are produced by current
   flowing through coils of wire are used to accelerate projectiles
   to high velocities.  The velocities anticipated for this gun are
   about 6 kilometers per second. In this gun the projectiles
   have the following major components:
*  Component     Mass(kg)  Purpose
   Armature        600     accelerate the projectile
   Aeroshell       370     protect the projectile as it passes
                           through the atmosphere
   Rocket engine    40     to boost the payload into orbit
   Propellant      610     fuel for the rocket
   Tankage         100     framework to hold the propellant
                           and the engine
   Payload         100     what is to be placed in orbit
                  1820 kg
       Since this gun is basically a ballistic launcher, the
   projectiles will fall back to earth unless on board rockets
   are used to adjust the trajectories of the projectiles and to
   increase their velocities by the proper amounts to permit the
   projectiles to assume standard orbits.
*      Cost estimates are as follows [107, p.5].
       Item                                Cost ($ B)
       Research and development              $ 0.41
       Full-scale gun and launch facility    $ 2.30
       4000 projectiles                      $ 1.88
       Operating costs for 7 years           $ 0.35
                                             $ 4.94
       The cost per kilogram of payload would then be:
*          $ 4.94 B / ( 4000 * 100 ) =  $12,350
       The incremental cost would be approximately:
*          $ 1.88 B / ( 4000 * 100 ) =  $ 4,700
         + $ 0.35 B / ( 4000 * 100 ) =  $   875
                                        $ 5,575 per kilogram
       M. Bill Cowan, manager of Sandia's Advanced Energy Conversion
   Systems Department told me in a brief phone interview that the
   costs could be reduced significantly.  He said the above estimates
   were based on available (and very expensive) equipment used by
   the DOD for ballistic missiles.  All such components are mil-spec
   and therefore cost about twice as much as need be.  Cowan stated
   that the costs could come down to $200 - $500 per pound or
   $440 - $1100 per kilogram.
   4.2.6  Railguns
       The Strategic Defence Initiative Organization (SDIO) has
   invested millions of dollars in railgun research over the past
   few years.  Aviation Week [AW 15, p.42] of 8/22/88
   reported SDIO funding at $11 million in 1987 and $12 million in
   1988.  Most of their work has been done at Eglin AFB in Florida.
   Eglin has 16 railguns in six bays which point out over the
   Gulf of Mexico [AW 15, p.41].
       The largest gun at Eglin is 5 meters long and has a 5
   centimeter square bore [AW 16, p.71]. This gun has fired 150
   gram projectiles at speeds of up to 2 kilometers per second.
   It is clear that these guns are orders of magnitude too small
   to be of any use in launching payloads into low earth orbit.
   They have other problems too.  "A major problem with rail
   guns is minimizing wear on the rails and insulators caused
   by the high currents and plasmas that present an 'arc welder'
   environment" [AW 16, p.71].  This necessitates discarding the
   barrel after only a small number of shots.  In addition "the
   technology has run into an unexpected barrier at 6 kilometers
   per second" [AW 46, p.51].
       This barrier may not be that unexpected.  In a report by
   William Salisbury published in 1958 [Ref 121], the following
   statement regarding railguns appeared on the first page -
   "sliding contact or rail guns [have] produced somewhat better
   velocities than we have achieved, but experiments in a vacuum
   [have] led us to the conclusion that a fundamental limitation
   to about four to six thousand feet per second exists in the
   sliding contact."  Salisbury goes on to say that "such contacts
   cease to function when the relative velocity of the contacting
   elements exceed the shock wave velocity in the arc ion gas at
   the contact."  In short, they won't work!
       The interested reader may wish to review the following
   additional articles in Aviation Week and Space Technology:
   [AW 2, p.92], [AW 9, p.28-9], [AW 14, p.29].  See also
   [106] Aerospace and Defence Science of Nov/Dec 1990.
   4.2.7  Scram gun
       The University of Washington is working on a projectile
   accelerator device which works like a ramjet and which may
   be a candidate for launching small payloads into low earth
   orbit.  In an article by B.W. Henderson in Aviation Week and
   Space Technology [AW 46, p.50-1], the scram gun was described
   as follows.
       The gun consists of a rather standard barrel filled with
   a fuel/oxidizer mixture at 10-30 atmospheres.  The projectile
   fits loosely inside and is conical at both ends.  The fuel is
   ignited behind the projectile.  This causes the projectile to
   move forward through the fuel which compresses the mixture
   around the projectile as in a ramjet.  The fuel then ignites
   behind the projectile accelerating it more.
       Professor A. Hertzberg, who originated the scram accelerator
   concept in 1983, and A.P. Bruckner and others at the University
   have built an accelerator 40 feet long and 1.5 inches in diameter.
   Their accelerator has fired 70 gram projectiles at velocities
   of up to 2.6 kilometers per second.
       It is clear that this type of gun will have a lower peak
   acceleration than the hydrogen gas gun described above; however,
   it may have a higher average acceleration because the hydrogen
   gas gun provides only one push on the projectile while the
   scram gun provides continous acceleration.  This implies that
   the scram gun will be much longer.  Indeed preliminary
   specifications call for a launch tube 5 kilometers long and 1
   meter in diameter.  It would slope up a mountain as in the
   hydrogen gas gun and the coil gun.  It would fire 1 ton
   projectiles of which about 50% would be payload [AW 46, p.51].
       A large scale gun of this type should be easy to build.
   The real worry is will it work at speeds in the range of 6 - 10
   kilometers per second which are required for orbiting payloads.
   The problem is the heating of the nosecone of the projectile
   as it rams through the fuel/oxidizer mixture.  If the nosecone
   becomes hot enough to ignite the mixture in front of the
   projectile, it won't work.
       Estimates of the cost per kilogram of payload are in the
   range of $330 [AW 46, p.51].
   4.2.8  Gerald Bull's Superguns
       William Lowther's book, "Arms and the Man: Dr. Gerald Bull,
   Iraq, and the Supergun", [Ref 117], also tells the story of the
   superguns Bull was building for Iraq for the purpose of launching
   satellites.  The following data are excerpted from Lowther's book.
       In March of 1988, Bull contracted to build two full sized
   guns and one smaller development prototype for a total of $25
   million.  It was called Project Babylon and was managed by a
   British engineer named Christopher Cowley.  The small gun was
   called Baby Babylon, but it was 46 meters long, had a bore of
   35 centimeters (13.78 inches), and weighed about 113 tons [117,
   p.187].  Preliminary estimates placed the range at about 750
   kilometers (466 miles) [117, p.223].  By May of 1989, Baby
   Babylon was being fired regularly in Iraq [117, p.226].  The gun
   was mounted horizontally and simply fired into a hillside for
   experimental purposes.
       The superguns, as specified by Cowley, would be nearly 200
   meters long, have a bore of 1 full meter, and would weigh about 2100
   tons each.  The barrels would have 26 six-meter sections and would
   weigh 1665 tons.  The tube would be 30 centimeters thick at the
   breech, dropping to 6.5 centimeters at the end [117, p.186-7].
   Additional recoil cylinders (4 each) would weigh 240 tons and the
   breech would weigh 182 tons [117, p.186]. The gun would recoil with
   a force of 30,000 tons [117, p.259]. The guns would have no rifling
   because the projectiles would  be rocket assisted and they didn't
   want them to spin.  (This of course greatly reduces the cost of the
   barrels.)  Each shot would require 10 tons of special propellant.
       Bull personally briefed both MI6 (the British equivalent of
   the CIA) and the Mossad (the Israeli equivalent of the CIA) about
   his project.  He wanted them to know that this gun was not a military
   weapon because otherwise they would stop the project.  Since the
   barrels were being made in England, the British could have stopped
   the project at any time.   The key to this argument was that the
   guns were so big that they were immobile.  Thus they would be
   completely vulnerable to air attack. The location of the gun would
   become obvious after the first shot.   If and when the gun was
   fired (in Iraq), the shock would be so great that it would register
   on seismographs in California [117, p.188].  Each firing would
   produce a 90 meter flame that could be picked up by all of the
   orbiting spy satellites. Within minutes everyone would know exactly
   where the gun was and it could be bombed out of operation very
   easily.  The gun's alignment was so sensitive that a bomb landing
   within a quarter mile of it would put it out of commission.
       Bull intended to launch payloads of two tons [117, p.185].
   The initial acceleration of the gun would be in the range of 10,000
   to 20,000 gees.  Many people, including the Israelis, thought Bull
   wouldn't be able to launch anything delicate, but Bull had found
   ways to launch delicate guages and timing devices without damage
   [117, p.83].  On March 22,1990, the Mossad assassinated Gerald
   Bull in Brussels [117, p.281].  On April 11,1990, British customs
   seized eight sections of the superguns on the docks in Teeside,
   England [117, p.278].
       Bull had estimated that his gun could put payloads into orbit
   for $600 per kilogram [117, p.219].  Bull was of course aware of
   LLNL's hydrogen gas gun, but he had experimented with gas guns
   before and considered them inferior to standard propellant guns
   [117, p.218].
       The projectiles were only in the drafting stage at the time
   of Bull's murder.  But they were intended to boost the payload
   from its ballistic trajectory into orbit with rocket engines in
   a manner similar to other launch systems mentioned above.
       We have a program which calculates the various parameters
   of gun launched projectiles.  The following table was prepared
   with this program.  It shows the approximate cost of rocket
   assisted projectiles fired from Bull's gun in terms of both total
   cost and cost per kilogram of payload.  One can see from the table
   that the cost is extremely sensitive to the specific impulse (Isp)
   of the propellant.
*  Table 4.2.8-1                Cost of gun launched projectiles
   Mass   Launch   Isp   mass   Payload   ( % )    Cost    Cost
   (kg)    angle   (s)   ratio   (kg)              1000s   per kg
   1600     21     250    6.20   123.7     7.73   $117.4   $ 948
                   275    5.25   174.9    10.93   $113.6   $ 650
                   460    2.70   492.8    30.80   $ 90.5   $ 184
   1700     20.5   250    6.15   133.9     7.88   $123.9   $ 925
                   275    5.22   188.5    11.09   $119.9   $ 636
                   460    2.68   526.6    30.97   $ 95.3   $ 181
   1800     20     250    6.11   144.1     8.01   $130.4   $ 905
                   275    5.18   202.1    11.23   $126.2   $ 625
                   460    2.67   560.5    31.14   $100.1   $ 179
   1900     20     250    6.07   154.4     8.13   $136.9   $ 887
                   275    5.15   215.7    11.36   $132.5   $ 614
                   460    2.66   594.4    31.29   $104.9   $ 177
   2000     19.5   250    6.03   164.8     8.24   $143.5   $ 871
                   275    5.12   229.5    11.47   $138.8   $ 605
                   460    2.66   628.5    31.42   $109.7   $ 175
      1. Muzzle velocity of 3500 meters per second.
      2. Launch altitude is 1500 meters.
      3. Launch latitude is 5 degrees or less.
      4. Single stage booster
      5. Tanks and engines weigh 10% of the propellant
      6. Fuel cost = $20 per kilogram
      7. Tanks and engines cost = $600 per kilogram
      8. Additional launch cost of $10,000 per shot
      1. Mass of projectile in kilograms
      2. Optimal launch angle in degrees
      3. Isp - specific impulse of rocket propellant carried
      4. Mass ratio of projectile and propellant
      5. Weight of payload in kilograms
      6. Percentage of payload in projectile
      7. Cost of each shot - no amortization of gun cost
      8. Cost per kilogram of payload.
   4.2.9  Sub-orbital gun
       Orbital Transport Services is a small company located in
   Phoenix, Arizona.  They are building conventional guns similar
   to Gerald Bull's guns to do the same thing that HARP did back
   in the 1960s.  Their brochure offers to launch payloads
   of up to 50 kilograms to altitudes of over 180 kilometers at
   prices under $100,000 per launch.  Bruce and Paul Roth, the
   founders, believe that they can break even on a mere 8.33 tons
   of payloads.  Payloads will be launched for about $880 per kilogram
   or $400 per pound.
   4.2.10  Summary of exotic launch systems
       There are two targets we are aiming for: low earth orbit
   and the moon.  It is very likely that one launch system cannot
   accomplish both tasks cost effectively.  The following choices
   are available for LEO:
*  Technique         Development  Available  Payload  Cost    Incr
                     cost ($ B )              (kg)    $/kg    $/kg
   Hydrogen gas gun     6.0        10 yrs?    340     600     392
   Coil gun (EMPL)      4.94        7 yrs?    100     6,000?  1,000?
   Railgun(won't work)   -            -        -       -       -
   Two stage gas gun    1.0?       10 yrs?   1000     119      53
   Scram gun (work?)    0.5?        6 yrs?    450      ?      330
   Supergun             0.1?        3 yrs     300?    600     175
       It is clear that the supergun should be developed for the
   purpose of placing small payloads in low earth orbit because of
   its exceptionally low development cost.  At $10 million each, the
   superguns are so cheap that they could be located at many sites around
   the world. If its rocket boosted projectiles were fueled with liquid
   oxygen and liquid hydrogen, the cost could drop to less than
   $200 per kilogram or $91 per pound or less than 10% of the cheapest
   rocket boosted payloads and less than 1% of the cost of the space
       The two stage hydrogen gas gun should also be studied to see if
   it can really be built within budget and if it will perform as
   4.3  Current earth launch sites
       The Soviet Union has launched by far the largest number of
   satellites and other space missions.  The US follows in a distant
   second place.  The ESA and Japan are another order of magnitude
   behind, but both are expanding their space programs.  The following
   is a list of the locations of the world's major launching centers.
*  Table 4.3-1             World's major launch centers
   Site                    Latitude,Longitude   Country
   Tyuratam                  45.6 N, 63.4 E       CIS
   Plesetsk                  62.6 N, 40.1 E       CIS
   Kapustin Yar              48.4 N, 45.8 E       CIS
   Kennedy Space Center      28.5 N,  80  W       USA
   Vandenburg AFB            35   N, 121  W       USA
   Wallop Is., Va.           38   N,  76  W       USA
   Kourou, French Guiana      5.2 N,  52  W       ESA
   Shuang Cheng-tzu          41.2 N, 100.1E       China
   Xichang                   28   N, 103  E       China
   Taiyuan                   38   N, 112  E       China
   Tanega shima, Japan       31   N, 130  E       Japan
   Uchinoura, Japan          32   N, 130  E       Japan
   Sriharikota               13   N,  80  E       India
   Source: [125] Space Activities of the US, Soviet Union, and Other
           Countries/Organizations, p.55,71,74,81.
   4.4  Earth to moon direct
       Considering that the cost per kilogram of payload landed on the
   moon is about 7 times the cost of the same kilogram in LEO [LB1,
   p.66], the minimum cost of payload landed there would be about
   $2381 * 7 or $16,667 per kilogram (using the Soviet Proton rocket).
       Using the superguns suggested above, the cost might be reduced
   to $200 * 7 or $1400 per kilogram.  But that would require some very
   "smart" facilities in LEO to collect payloads coming up from earth
   and to reassemble them into something which could be launched from
   LEO to the moon.
       Our recommendation is to build an EMPL about four times as long
   as the Sandia launcher.  With the same acceleration one could then
   achieve a launch velocity of about 13 km per second.  This would be
   sufficient to throw projectiles all the way to the moon.
       The following table shows the earth launch velocity necessary
   to throw projectiles through the atmosphere and all the way to the
   moon.  The first column specifies the velocity of the projectile
   when it reaches the moon.  The other columns indicate the projectile
   mass in kilograms.  All velocities are in meters per second.
*  Table 4.4-1   Earth-to-Moon  EMPL launch velocities
   Lunar Velocity      Projectile mass in kilograms
    (m/s)        2000     3000     4000     5000     6000
    1500        13588    12615    12208    11983    11840
    1600        13608    12632    12224    11998    11855
    1700        13629    12650    12241    12015    11871
    1800        13651    12669    12259    12032    11888
    1900        13674    12689    12278    12051    11906